until its destruction by the Babylonians in 586 B.C.E. An upright stone slab usually inscribed or carved for commemorative purposes. In the biblical account, the Hebrew people, were led by the Patriarchs and later by Judges prior to the establishment of the kingdom. Zimri's reign was short-lived, however, and of the two leaders who competed to succeed him, the military general Omri soon emerged victorious. He was succeeded by David, who was from Judah. Later in 1917, the Ottoman Empire renamed it as “Southern Syria” after they too conquered the area. Because we have only the highly pro-Solomonic biblical account to inform us, we do not know what extent the northern tribes retained independence or resisted Solomon's rule. Omri also consolidated Israel politically and resisted both Damascus to the north and the Moabites to the south. Archaeological evidence seems to confirm the existence of a shrine at Dan, but not necessarily at Bethel (Betin). 1Then all the tribes of Israel came to David at Hebron, and said, “Look, we are your bone and flesh.2For some time, while Saul ... View more, Solomon Builds the Temple These and later arrivals at times intermarried with the remaining Israelites to form the mixed-blood people later known as Samaritans. The history of the Northern Kingdom will be divided into four segments. For this period, most historians follow either of the older chronologies established by William F. Albright or Edwin R. Thiele, or the newer chronology of Gershon Galil, all of which are shown below. This article will focus on the Northern Kingdom, or Israel. In reality, from the 10th to the late eighth century B.C.E., the northern kingdom of Israel was likely always the superior power, with greater resources, whereas Judah continued in its shadow and as its subject. ), establishing their independence. In addition, 1 Kings also relates that Solomon imposed onerous taxes and forced labor on the northern tribes yet exempted Judah, leading the ten northern tribes to defect. Critical scholars wonder if the bull calf statue was the real issue, or whether it was more likely one of control. Hebrew is regarded as the spoken language of ancient Israel but is largely replaced by Aramaic in the Persian period. Jehu also killed Joram's southern ally, King Ahaziah of Judah, ironically paving the way for Jezebel's daughter Athaliah, to seize the throne in Jerusalem. The kingdom consisting of the northern Israelites tribes, which existed separately from the southern kingdom of Judah. The United Kingdom of Saul, David, and Solomon endured for a period of 120 biblical years and then split into two nations.    |    Donate, https://www.bibleodyssey.org:443/en/places/main-articles/kingdom-of-israel, Mormon Scripture and the Lost Tribes of Israel, Biblical History and Israel’s Past: The Changing Study of the Bible and History, Introduction to the Historical Books: Strategies for Reading, The Legacy of Israel in Judah’s Bible: History, Politics, and the Reinscribing of Tradition, The term “kingdom of Israel” can refer either to the united, Jeroboam’s act of setting up golden calves at Dan and Bethel in. The northern tribes of Ephraim and Benjamin made Saul's son Ish-Bosheth their king in the town of Mahanaim, probably near the Jabbock River. The biblical numbers regarding the size of cities and armies are generally much larger than those suggested by the archaeological evidence. A sequence of rulers from the same family. “Kingdom of Israel” refers both to the united kingdom under Saul, David, and Solomon and to the northern kingdom of Israel, which separated from the united kingdom after the death of Solomon. According to the Hebrew Bible, all the tribes were part of a unified kingdom under David and Solomon, but the northern kingdom under Jeroboam I rebelled after Solomon's death (probably sometime in the late 10th century B.C.E. Urheber: Online-today: Andere Versionen: Deutsch (Deutsch) English (Englisch) español (Spanisch) magyar (Ungarisch) Nederlands (Niederländisch) português (Portugiesisch) македонски (Mazedonisch) עברית (Hebräisch) Lizenz. The Hebrew Bible’s central focus is the fate of the kingdom of Judah, which was relatively small and subject to powerful ancient Near Eastern empires. The division of the once-unified Israel into two kingdoms occurred when Jeroboam, from the tribe of Ephraim, led the northern tribes’ revolt against Solomon’s son, Rehoboam. The supreme male divinity of Mesopotamia and Canaan. According to these biblical works, the first king of united Israel was Saul, who was from the tribe of Benjamin. However because even the kings of this pro-Yahwist dynasty allow the worship of the Canaanite goddess Ashera and refuse to pull down the bull calf statues at Dan and Bethel, they too are judged as evil in God's sight. Its capital was the city of Jerusalem. Eigenes Werk, translated from File:Kingdom of Israel 1020 map.svg. Short written texts, generally inscribed on stone or clay and frequently recording an event or dedicating an object. 11The time that David reigned over Israel was forty years; he reigned seven years in Hebron, and thirty-three years in Jerusalem. Some scholars debate whether there was really a united period or whether the two kingdoms were always separate. Chronicles also lacks a running account of the divided kingdom of Israel, which its author considered theologically illegitimate. The rule of Jeroboam's tribe, Ephraim, became unpopular; and his son Nadab (913) was slain by the usurper Baasha, of the tribe Issachar (911). After the death of Solomon in about 931 BCE, all the Israelite tribes except for Judah and Benjamin (called the ten northern tribes) refused to accept Rehoboam, the son and successor of Solomon, as their king. A broad, diverse group of nations ruled by the government of a single nation. Jeroboam’s was the first of several northern Israelite royal dynasties. The fourth traces the decline of the Kingdom of Israel until its fall during the Assyrian invasion of 722 B.C.E.. (See chart, below.) However, archaeological evidence of David’s reign is so sparse that scholars debate his historical existence, let alone his dominance. The second begins with Omri and ends with the coup by Jehu. Recent research and the discovery of an ancient inscription have shed light on the background of Jehu’s rebellion as described in the book of Kings. He vigorously prosecuted the war with Damascus, but internal opposition by internal religious forces grew stronger. These authors tolerate no compromise with religious pluralism. Relating to thought about the nature and behavior of God. The Kingdom of Israel may refer to any of the historical kingdoms of ancient Israel, including: . eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'newworldencyclopedia_org-medrectangle-4','ezslot_2',162,'0','0'])); The area of the Northern Kingdom of Israel fluctuated greatly, and scholars disagree as to it actual borders at any given time. However, when King Asa of Judah influenced the Arameans to break with Baasha, Israel lost fertile lands northwest of the Sea of Galilee as well as militarily significant southern high ground. Amos emphasizes the need for a religion based on moral principles and social justice, while Hosea calls on Israel to abandon her "adulterous" worship of other gods and to return to Yahweh, her true and loving husband. In declaring "Here are your 'gods' (Elohim), O Israel" was Jeroboam I truly denying Yahweh/Elohim, or was he merely declaring that the God of Israel (Elohim) could be worshiped just as well at Dan and Bethel as in Jerusalem? It is this “sin of Jeroboam,” perpetuated by every subsequent king of Israel in their continued maintenance of these sanctuaries, that earns them the judgment of “wicked” in 1-2 Kings. His erection of these sites, designed to create national cohesion and provide convenient access for pilgrims, earned him the enduring enmity of the Jerusalem priesthood and the biblical authors. The fourth traces the decline of the Kingdom of Israel until its fall during the Assyrian invasion of 722 B.C.E.. (See chart, below.). The Hebrew Bible credits him with establishing a minor empire around 1000 B.C.E. The author of the Book of Kings presents the history of the Northern Kingdom primarily as a manifestation of the struggle between the One-God principle and idolatry. Jehu appealed to Shalmaneser III of Assyria, an act memorialized in the Black Obeslisk unearthed in northern Iraq. The Kingdom of Israel emerged as an important local power by the 10th century BCE before falling to the Neo-Assyrian Empire in 722 BCE. Shallum was soon put him to death by an army officer, Menahem. The kingdom of Judah, according to the Hebrew Bible ruled by a king in the line of David from the 10th century B.C.E. Saul’s failure to establish a dynasty is interpreted in the Bible as Yahweh’s rejection of his kingship. According to the Bible, the house of David ruled the southern kingdom of Judah for several centuries, and extrabiblical evidence appears to confirm this designation for the monarchy of Judah. 17Samuel summoned the people to the Lord at Mizpah18and said to them, “Thus says the Lord, the God of Israel, ‘I brought up Israel out of E ... View more, David Anointed King of Judah