Some Features Of Nuer Religion – E E Evans-Pritchard Foreigners who would like to work effectively among the Nuer must obviously learn well the language of the Nuer and the life-style pertinent to cattle herding. Revised 12 June 2008 Archeologists indicate that the introduction of cattle in this area is related to the development of the distinct peoples the Nuer are descended from. Grains and vegetables supplement this diet. Women desire to have six children. The Nuer call themselves Naath, meaning "human beings." Women generally give birth to their first children when they are mature enough to bear them. Oral traditions indicate that the Nuer have moved east of the Nile River only during the last 200 years. There is no overall political authority in the tribal structure. It has been shown, too, that a great many aspects of the Nuer culture are similar to cultural distinctives of Old Testament peoples. Nuers believe that when a man or a woman dies, the flesh, the life and the soul separate. Typical foods eaten by the Nuer tribe include beef, goat, cow's milk, mangos, and sorghum in one of three forms: "ko̱p" finely ground, handled until balled and boiled, "walwal" ground, lightly balled and boiled to a solid porridge, and injera / Yɔtyɔt, a large, pancake-like yeast-risen flatbread. Several thousand of these are Nuer. Evans-Pritchard's account. "[1] Cattle are particularly important in their role as bride wealth, where they are given by a husband's lineage to his wife's lineage. 2007), "Nuer Journeys, Nuer Lives". Nuer Online indicates that, "Nuer (Nuäär) believes that God is the spirit of the sky or the spirit who is in the sky" Kuoth Nhial" (God in Heaven) the creator, but Nuers believe in the coming of God through rain, lightning and thunder, and that the rainbow is the necklace of God. The Nuer are an excitable people and individuals are very independent and prone to take offense. Any animal that dies of natural causes is eaten". Nuer – The New World Encyclopedia Sometimes the cow names are passed down. Even so, reports indicate that only about 1% of the Nuer are Christian. According to Evans-Pritchard, cattle helped evolve the Nuer culture into what it is today. The Nuer. Burton, John W.  "Nuer," Encyclopedia of World Cultures. Some who took refuge in Ethiopia were driven back into Sudan, while others found places in refugee camps. During E.E.Evans-Pritchard's ethnographic observation, he described the role of kinship as: "Kinship obligations include caring for the children of one’s kin and neighbors. Never do they just kill cattle for the fun of it. E. E. Evans-Pritchard studied the Nuer and made very detailed accounts of his interactions. In the early 1980s when the north–south war was happening, Chevron was interested in the reserves in the south. The Nuer people are pastoralists who herd cattle for a living. Browse tons of unique designs on T-Shirts, Hoodies, Pajamas, Underwear, Panties, Maternity, and Plus Size Clothing. A few also live in Ethiopia. [24], As part of Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), 50 percent of net revenues of southern oil fields were given to the government of southern Sudan as a solution to one of the sources of decades of civil conflict.[25]. There are a few other food sources that are available for the Nuer to consume. In dry-season camps, men sleep with the cattle in shelters made from local grasses. In particular, 4,288 refugees from Sudan were resettled among 36 different states between 1990 and 1997 with the highest number in Texas at 17 percent of the refugee population from Sudan. Sharon Hutchinson writes that "among Nuer people the difference between people and cattle was continually underplayed." [17], Some Nuer have begun practicing circumcision after being assimilated or partially assimilated in other ethnic groups. They began an especially active migration about the mid 1800s. Their culture is organized around cattle. Kuajien Lual Wechtuor, Yual Doctor Chiek and Peter Gai Manyuon. The Nuer pray for health and well-being, offering sacrifices to Kwoth so he will answer their petitions. They tend to travel when heavy seasons of rainfall come to protect the cattle from hoof disease, and when resources for the cattle are scarce. The Development of Nuer Linguistics Many Nuer can easily recount ten generations of paternal lineage because they carry those names themselves. The Nuer believe they establish contact with these ancestor spirits by rubbing ashes along the backs of oxen or cows dedicated to them, through the sacrifice of cattle. Women may remain in or near the wet season areas when the men follow the receding waters toward the lower areas. In 1993, the UN High Commission for Refugees reported that 53 million people had been displaced by the civil war in Sudan. Pasadena, California:  William Carey Library, 1970. Genesis in Nuer – 1954-72 Orthography and Translation For example, each month they blow air into their cattle's rectums to relieve or prevent constipation. Centuries of isolation and influence from Luo peoples caused them to be a distinct ethnic group from the Dinka. The book of Genesis from the 1999 edition is also viewable online. Commander Ruai and Liah Diu Deng were responsible for the attack that forced Chevron to suspend activities in the oil field around 1982. Oxford:  Claredon Press. "Welcome, South Sudan, to the Family of Nations". He composes songs of affection and praise to that bull. [1] The Nuer call themselves "Naath". The soul that signifies the human individuality and personality remains alive as a shadow or a reflection, and departs together with the ox sacrificed, to the place of the ghosts.". Cows are dedicated to the spirits of the owner's lineages and any personal spirits that may have possessed them at any time. "Never do Nuer slaughter animals solely because the desire to eat meat. These traditions say the separation of the three occurred due to a dispute over cattle ownership. They do believe the spirits of the dead can affect their current life. The flesh is committed to the earth, while the breath or life goes back to God (Kuoth). This struggle has lead to a dire humanitarian crisis and four million South Sudanese facing displacement.. The Perception of Polygamous Marriage in Sudanese society! The Nuer are not historically known to circumcise, but sometimes circumcise people who have engaged in incest.[18]. Customs: Nuer Religion. [23], The Nuer-Dinka struggle in oil fields continued in late 1990s into the early 2000s. Evans-Pritchard, E E.  Kinship and Marriage among the Nuer. However, reporting[citation needed] indicates that only around 1% of Nuer identify as Christian. In around 1850, further slave raids as well as flooding and overpopulation caused them to migrate even further out of Bentiu and eastwards all the way into the western fringes of Ethiopia, displacing and absorbing many Dinka, Anyuak and Burun in the process. ----. After the civil war, the Nuer began accepting cash currency into their economy, changing the dynamics of their cattle and how they were viewed. But they worship a supreme being called Kwoth (Kuoth) who has various manifestations with which some claim to have personal relationships. Identity: He also observed that,"The network of kinship ties which links members of local communities is brought about by the operation of exogamous rules, often stated in terms of cattle. The language is uniform with no definable dialects. "[10] They form their children's names from biological features of the cattle. The Nuer people are a Nilotic ethnic group concentrated in the Greater Upper Nile region of South Sudan. Their second name is a given name and always in Nuer. The Perception of Polygamous Marriage in Sudanese society! Monotheistic Animism 99%; Christianity: 1% (Evangelical) Dotted patterns are also common (especially among the Bul Nuer and among females). “The Nuer (Naath) people in South Sudan are one of the largest ethnic groups in the northeastern Africa which stretches from Egypt for 2000 km and westward from the Red Sea for 1500km. The sun and the moon as well as other material entities are also manifestation or sign of God, who after all is a spirit.