This autonomy may either be based on the absence of alternative forms of grouping or on the coexistence of a plurality of corporate forms that dislocate one another by dispersing loyalties and generating conflict. The authority of office may be narrow or wide in its scope, that is, the affairs to which it relates, or in its range, the size of the aggregate it regulates. Almond, Gabriel A. With regard to authority of the same kind within a single social unit, this structure is often, but by no means always, hierarchic in form. Gray, Robert F. 1953 Positional Succession Among the Wambugwe. World Politics 9:383–400. There is probably considerable common-sense agreement among those interested in what is meant by a stateless society. Regardless of theoretical orientation or locale, however, most of these border studies have focused on how social relations, defined in part by the state, transcend the territorial limits of the state and, in so doing, transform the structure of the state at home and in its relations with its neighbors. Example sentences with "political anthropology", translation memory. D.I. Definition of Political anthropology in the dictionary. Offices vary in the complexity and size of the staff through which they regulate their affairs. London School of Economics Monographs on Social Anthropology, No. The value of localized studies for understanding how cultural landscapes are superimposed across social and political divides was developed by Cole and Wolf (1974) whose field site in the Italian Tyrol was specifically chosen because its successive historical partitioning allowed them to explore the transformation of local political loyalties in relation to nation-building. The theories of David Ricardo were often pressed into this mold, though most practicing economists, including Ricardo, maintained a more optimistic scenario of growth based on capital accumulation. Warner, W. Lloyd (1937) 1958 A Black Civilization: A Social Study of an Australian Tribe. Political sociology remains one of the major focuses while political anthropology and political economy have lost some of their vigor, probably because of the failure of Marxist types of development. They mark the limits of sovereignty and of state control over citizens and subjects, limits that may be upheld by force or by the threat of force. In his early writings, Hegel seems to have been convinced that the transition from one sphere of recognition to another is generated in each particular case by a struggle conducted by subjects among themselves for respect for their self-comprehension as it grows in stages: The demand to be recognized in newer and newer dimensions of one’s own person leads, so to speak, to an intersubjective conflict whose resolution can only consist in establishing a further sphere of recognition (Honneth, 1995, chap. . It represents the minimum range of discretion necessary to ensure appropriate action in various emergencies. Oxford Univ. Political Anthropology Political anthropologists have been most concerned with the contextual specificity of political processes, the mechanisms through which localities are incorporated into larger scales of social, economic, and political life, and the sentiments and meanings that people bring to their political practices. political anthropology—a book that provides the background necessary to understand more focused ethnographic and theoretical accounts, as a stage setting might provide the context and meaning for a play’s action. Oxford Univ. Cunnison, Ian G. 1956 Perpetual Kinship: A Political Institution of the Luapula Peoples. Traditional long-term focuses such as nonalignment and Russian politics took a back seat in favor of South-East Asian and West European studies. of Chicago Press. Oxford Univ. The Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences, published between 1930 and 1935, contained no special article on comparative politics…, Feud → A paperback edition was published in 1963 by Beacon. Standard definitions of government or political organization provided no place for such systems, yet the anthropologists knew they were faced with an order, which they identified with political order comparable to that maintained within the more organized polities. Press. The Nuer polity consists of aggregates whose members act together to regulate common affairs. Press. Press. What particularly interested Cole and Wolf about the South Tyrol was the durability of a cultural frontier long after the political borders of state and empire had shifted. The Origin of anthropology Where the college retains decisive control of appointments and policy formation, the office may be either symbolic, as among the Yoruba (Lloyd 1960; 1962), or, if executive, lacking in any significant discretionary power. Smith, Michael G. 1960 Government in Zazzau: 1800–1950. Political organization can be described in terms of the processes of decision making found in a given population (Easton 1953; 1957; Macridis 1955). Hogben, Sidney J. Gloucester, Mass. Not surprisingly, Raymond Firth, given his interest in individual choice, had for some time been uncomfortable with the functionalist paradigm. They must be able to restrict disruptive violence and take some kind of action in common. Princeton Univ. 2 vols. And since no persisting social unit can ever have a framework of organization and procedures that is fully comprehensive and appropriate for all the eventualities that arise in its history, all social units must retain sufficient autonomy to enable them to modify, supplement, reinterpret, repeal, or develop their rules, procedures, and organization as a necessity of successful adaptation to their changing external environment and internal distributions of power and need. translation and definition "political anthropology", Dictionary English-English online. Africa 23:199–211. Published for the International African Institute. In one sense, the term denotes a distinctive form of political organization; in another it refers to the society of which this is the political form. Without power, authority is ineffective; without authority, power may dominate but remains uninstitutionalized. of Chicago Press. Other studies of factions and factionalism swiftly followed (Siegel and Beals 1960, Boissevain 1964, 1974, Nicholas 1965, Bailey 1969, Thoden van Velzen 1973, Bujra 1973, Alavi 1973). They pointed out, for instance, how proximity to a state border can intensify local conflicts, which can easily escalate into conflicts over nationality, a threat which only cross-cutting linkages (of kinship, common residence, and shared social and economic interests) help to keep in check. LÉvi-Strauss, Claude (1955) 1961 A World on the Wane. Press. Beyond this, the subject matter of public regulation varies as widely as the form, scale, character, and function of the groups and their differing social contexts. During this period, anthropologists developed a terminology appropriate to the wide variety of political systems with which they dealt. London: International African Institute. Origin Early 20th century; earliest use found in The North American Review. Fortes, Meyer 1940 The Political System of the Tallensi of the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast. Press. London School of Economics Monographs on Social Anthropology, No. Cole and Wolf's insistence on the need to view the anthropology of borders as historical anthropology is recalled. . Other offices, although executive in character, may be accountable for their conduct to some other body— a college, a corporate group, or a superior office. 2d ed. Lloyd, Peter C. 1960 Sacred Kingship and Government Among the Yoruba. Only one essay, by John Provinse (1937), was primarily concerned with problems of a political nature. It exists when a large proportion of the adult members of a society, more particul…, Loyalty To study a Tale community in isolation, therefore, yields a misleading picture of the society and polity alike, since in this case both coincide. Press. Pages 239–271 in Meyer Fortes and E. E. EvansPritchard (editors), African Political Systems. The college has two distinguishing characteristics: first, it contains a plurality of members who thus have equal status; second, the members of a college are always a minority of the public with which the college is identified. Yet even among the Nambikuara and Shoshoneans, the leading members of these bands exercised little authority beyond that required by relations of ritual, kinship, and subsistence. 105–6). Ethnographic Survey of Africa, North-eastern Africa, Part 2. For example, economic power is the capacity to pursue economic goals despite resistance and competition. As regulatory units, corporations provide the basic framework for alignments of authority and power in the regulation of public affairs.